What is Photograph and It’s History?
What is Photograph and it’s history?
A photograph (also called a photograph, image, or picture) is an image produced by light falling on a light-sensitive surface (usually photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or CMOS chip).
Most photos are now created with smartphones/cameras, which use lenses to focus the visible wavelengths of the scene into a reproduction of what the human eye sees. The process and practice of creating such images is called photography.
The word photograph was coined by Sir John Herschel in 1839 and is based on the Greek word (phos) meaning light, which means drawing, writing, which together means drawing with light.
The first permanent photograph was a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, made in 1822 using the bitumen-based heliography process developed by Nicephore Niepce.
A few years later, in 1826, Le Grasse, France, took the first photograph of a real-world scene using a camera obscura, but Niepce’s process was not sensitive enough for the application: camera exposures lasted hours or required days.
In 1829, Niepce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre, and the two collaborated to develop a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niepce’s death in 1833, Daguerre focused on silver halide substitutes. He exposed silver-plated copper sheets to iodine vapors to form a layer of light sensitive silver iodide; exposed them to a camera for a few minutes; developed the resulting invisible latent image with mercury fumes; then soaked the plates in a hot salt solution to remove the remaining Silver iodide, which makes the result lightfast.
He named the first practical process of taking pictures with a camera the Daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on January 7, 1839, but details of the work were not made public until August 19.
Other inventors soon made improvements that reduced the required exposure time from minutes to seconds, making portrait photography truly practical and popular.
The daguerreotype has disadvantages, notably the fragility of the specular image surface and the special viewing conditions required to view the image correctly.
Each is a unique opaque positive that can only be reproduced by photocopying with a camera. inventor set out
Develop a more practical improvement process. By the end of the 1850s, the daguerreotype had been replaced by the cheaper and easier-to-see ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the recently introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives, used to print photographs on albumen paper, quickly became the preferred photographic method and remained so for many years, even after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871.
Improvements in the gelatin process are still the predominant black and white photographic white photographic process to date, with the main difference being the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, initially glass, then various flexible plastic films, and various types for final printing paper.
Color photography is almost as old as black-and-white photography, with early experiments including John Herschel’s 1842 Anthotype engravings, Louis Ducos du Hauron’s seminal work in the 1860s, and the 1891 Lippmann’s method was published in 1999, but color photography remained a laboratory curiosity for many years.
It first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but these plates were very expensive and not suitable for casual snapshots with a hand-held camera.
The mid-1930s introduced Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multilayer color development type. These early processes produced transparencies used in slide projectors and viewing equipment, but color printing became more popular after the introduction of color-developing printing paper in the 1940s.
The needs of the film industry produced many specialized processes and systems, perhaps the most famous being the now obsolete three-strip color process.
Non-digital photos are made through a two-step chemical process. Photosensitive film captures the negative image (color and light/dark inversion) in a two-step process.
To make a positive image, the most common practice is to transfer (print) the negative onto photographic paper. The printing of negatives onto transparencies for the production of motion picture films.
Alternatively, the film is processed to reverse the negative image, resulting in a positive transparency. Such frontal images are often framed and called slideshows.
Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were widely used by professionals for their sharpness and accuracy of color reproduction. Most photographs published in magazines are shot on color transparencies.
Initially, all photographs were hand-painted in monochrome or colour. Although color photo development was known as early as 1861, it was not widely used until the 1940s or 1950s, and even then most photographs were black and white until the 1960s.
Since then, color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, which is easier to develop than color.
Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras such as the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Panoramas have been captured on Advanced Photo System (APS) film since the 1990s.
APS was developed by several major filmmakers to provide films in different formats and computerized options available, although APS panoramas are created using masks in panorama-capable cameras and are far inferior to true panoramas.The camera is ideal, and the latter achieves its effect through a wider range of film formats.
The advent of microcomputers and digital photography led to the rise of digital prints. These prints are created from amassed graphic shape such as JPEG, TIFF, and RAW.
The types of printers used include inkjet printers, dye sublimation printers, laser printers, and thermal printers. Inkjet printing is sometimes named Giclee.
The Web has been a popular medium for storing and sharing photos since Tim Berners-Lee posted the first photo online in 1992 (of the CERN chamber band Les Horribles Cernettes).
Today, popular sites like Flickr, PhotoBucket, and 500px are used by millions of people to share their photos.
Ideal photo storage involves placing each photo in a separate folder constructed of cushioned or acid-free paper.
Cushioned paper folders are especially recommended if the photo was previously mounted on poor quality material or with an adhesive that would cause more acid.
Store photos 8×10 inches or smaller vertically along the longer edges of the photos in buffer paper folders in larger archive boxes and label each folder with relevant information for identification.
The rigid nature of the folder keeps the photos from collapsing or wrinkling, as long as the box isn’t packed too tightly or under packed. Store larger or fragile photos flat with other materials of similar size in an archival box.
The most stable plastic polyester used for photo preservation does not produce any harmful chemical elements, nor does it absorb acids from the photo itself.
Polyester sleeves and enclosures have been praised for their ability to protect photographs from moisture and environmental contamination, slowing the reaction between the item and the atmosphere.
That’s true, but polyester also often traps the elements next to the material it’s meant to protect.
This is especially dangerous in storage environments where extreme fluctuations in humidity or temperature can cause stencils or photographs to stick to the plastic.
Photographs in polyester sleeves or enclosures cannot be stored vertically in boxes as they will slide, bend and fold down side by side in the box, nor can archivists write directly on polyester to identify the photographs.
Therefore, it is necessary to stack polyester-protected photographs horizontally inside a box, or to staple them in a three-ring binder.
Stacking photos horizontally in a flat box greatly reduces accessibility, and the binder exposes three sides of the photos to light and does not support the photos evenly on both sides, resulting in cracks in the binder. Collapse and bend.
The plastic used for the housing has been made to be as friction-free as possible to prevent scratching the photo when the sleeve is inserted.
Unfortunately, the slippery nature of the case creates a buildup of static electricity that attracts dust and lint particles. Static electricity can attract